General Studies Paper--1
Q.1. Answer any one of the following Questions in about 250 words:
(A) What was the character of socio-religious reforms in 19th century and how did they contribute to national awakening in india ?
(B) The crisis of the colonial order during 1919 and 1939 was directly linked to constitutional reforms ,disillusionment and militant anticolonial struggles.Elucidate.
Ans. (A) The socio-religious reforms in 19th century were oriented towards restructuring the Indian Society along the modern lines and for growth of national unity and solidarity. Rationlism was the most significant element of these movements wherein socio-reliogious practices were judged onthe stand point of their social and contemporary relevence . The rationale behind taking together both social and religious aspects was the religious one being closely interwoven with social structure.The social norms were determined by religious tenets, hence both aspects had to be reformed.
Another important character was that they do not stand for structural transformation of society ,rather for changes in broad social framework. There was no total rejection of tradion nor was it blind imitation of westernization, it was to be on intellectual and creative process through which Indian culture and thought were to be renovated as postulated by Raja Rammohan Roy.Therefore its Key-notes were modernizingand rational approach. Reform movemwntalso sought to influence the political authority,administration and legislation as was evident in socio-cultural policy of colonial rulars. On the whole,these movements were progressive in nature as they aimed at attainment of scientifically engineered change and social salvation. The reform movements fostered a new consciousness--Social cultural and above all critical which led to introspection of traditional ethos and identificationof socio-religious evils.It revived the faith in indian glory, self respect andself pride which was supported by theosophical society.As a result of reformedoutlook,many women and extensionof equal rights to them,removal of cast rigidities esp.Untouchability and also to spread education. Numerous Individuals like Raja Rammohan Roy,Pt.IshwerchandVidhyasagar,Henry V.Derozio,reform societies and religious organisations worked hard to spreededucation among women,to encourage widow remarriage,prevent childmarriage, to bring women out of purdah.The manifestation of the above could be seen in the active role played by women in freedom struggle.
As modern democratic rationalist ideas spread among indians they vehemently opposed caste system.Brahmo Samaj,Arya Samaj,Prarthna Samaj,Ramkrishna Mission and nearly all great reformers attecked it. As a result ofawakening,the lower castes rose in defence of their rights. Thus socio-religiousreform movements infused self pride and nationalistic outlook which greatly contributed to national awakening.
(B)By 1919,the colonial rule was not able to fulfil the demands and aspirationsof indians,who felt cheated by promises made by the british during first world warand were disillusioned with the exploitative designs of rowllat Act and Jallianwala Bagh massacare.Urgent need was felt for constitutional reformes and the council act of 1919was introduced which advocated dual governance and expensionof legislature which further failed to satsfy the indian demands .Unrealised promisesled to rise of mass movements like non co-operation movement and later civil disobedience movement. These mass movements under the charismatic leadership of gandhiji, gave an expresssion of more aggressive and redical kind of nationalism.
The sudden withdrawal of non co-operationMovement and suspension of civil disobedience movement,shattered the faith of young congressmenand they lost allegiance to gandhian techniques of mass struggle.This gave rise to Revolutionary terrorism which had firm connection to overthrow british rule by striking terror and violence.Organisationslike hindustan republican Association and Hindustan Republican socialist Association organised action against British rule.
The Act of 1935 was also disappointing,as it failed to fulfil the purna swaraj demand of the nation.Pt. nehru described it was unwanted,undemocratic and anti national Act. Congress fought election (according to provisions of 1935 Act)and formed state Ministriesbut resigned in1937 on the issue of involvement in second world war which again created problems for the British Goverment. Therefore the period1919-1939 was a period of turmoil for colonial empire as its weakening administrative mechanism was evident in front of the rising tide of indian Nationalism.
Q.2 Answer any two of the following questions in about 150 words each:
(a) What are the salient features of Govt. of India Acts of 1858 and 1909?
(b) Do you think Mahatma Gandhi’s support to Khilaftat Movement had diluted his secular credentials? Give your argument based on the assessment of events.
(c) Evaluate the contribution of revolutionary terrorism represented by Bhagat Singh to the cause of India’s struggle for Independence?
Ans.(a) The following are salient features of –Act of 1858
1. The Act transferred the Indian Administration to British Crwon and changed the designation of Governor General to ‘The Vicorey of India’
2. The powers related to government and revenues of India, were to be exercised by secretary of state for India who would by aided by a council of 15 Members (8-nominated by Crown and 7 elected by Directors). The secretary of state was to be a member of British Cabinet and responsible to British Parliament.
3. The Council of India was to be an advisory body and was presided by secretary of state who was empowered to override the majority. However, he could not do so in financial matteres.
4. The Act empowered the crown to appoint the Viceroy of India and Governors of presidencies. The Viceroy was empowered to appoint Lt. Governors with crown’s approval.Act of 1909
1. Expansion of Councils : The number of additional members (legislative) in Viceroy’s Executive Council was raised from 16 to 60, Legislative Councils of Madras, Bengal and Bombay were increased to 50 members each.
2. The legislative council consisted of four categories of members Ex officio members nominated officials, nominated no-officials and elected members. Official majority was retained in Imperial legislative council but it was given up in provinces.
3. Introduction of Communal Electorates- Muslims were given 2 privileges-direct representation and right of plural voting.
4. The Act of 1909 for the fists time gave recognition to elective principle for appointment of non official members to councils but it was restricted and discriminatory franchise.
5. The members of the legislative council could discuss the budged and pass resolution and they could also ask supplementary questions.
6. The size of executive councils of Governors in Bombay and Madras increased to four and Indians were appointed in them.(b) There is no valid reason to believe that Mahatma Gandhi’s support to Khilafat Movement had diluted his secular credentials because Gandhi viewed the Khilafat agitation as golden opportunity for consolidation Hindu-Muslim unity and bringing the Muslim masses into the national movement. Gandhiji realised that India which is highly fragmented, different sects, religios ideology, race, and cultural people can only be uited through mass movement. This mass movement would provide them platform to fight for their own different demands and seeing that the alien regime stood in opposition to them. Gandhiji looked upon the Khilafat agitation as “an opportunity of uniting Hindus and Muslims as would not arise in a hundred years”. Muslim and Hindu bond got cemented. Muslim leaders gave a call to refrain from slaughtering cow on Bakra Id. Swami Shradhanand delivered a speech from Jama Masjid Delhi. Hindu and Muslim workers began to drill together. The English government declared it illegal. Gandhi involvement in the Khilafat movement had brought urban muslims into the nationalist movement and had been thus responsible in part for the feeling of nationalist enthusiasm and exhilatation that prevailed in the country in those days. Gandhiji to some extent failed in raising the religious political consciousness of the Muslims to the higher plane of secular political consciousness. At the same time it should also be kept in view that the Khilafat movement represented much wider feeling of the Muslims than their concern for the Caliph. It was in reality an aspect of the genereal spread of anti imperialist feelings among the Muslims. These feelings found concrete expression on the Khilafat questions which Gandhiji was well aware of.(c) Revolutionary terrorism emereged as an alternative political line- for moderated constitutional agitation, and extremists direct action represented by Bhagat Singh and his other comrades made a major advance in broadening the scope of repolution by postulation its first objective as national liberation and another to establish a new social order in which exploitation of man by man must end.Bhagat Singh defined Socialism in a scientific manner-abolition of capitalism and class domination. He advocated Religion as one’s private conceren and communalism as an enemy to be fought. In his article : Why I am atheist he subjected religious philosophy to a critique. Thus, the movement under Bhagat singh made the masses more progressive in outlook. He had already abandoned his belief in terrorism in 1929 and turned to socialism and believed that popular mass movement could alone lead to successful revolution. Therefore, he established Punjab Naujawan Bharat Sabha in 1926 to carry political work among youth, peasants and workers.Thsus it can be concluded that his deep patriotism, secularism and progressive ideas helped spread nationa and socialistic consciousness and made an abiding contribution to national freedom movement.
Q. 3 Write about the following (not exceeding 20 words each) :
(a) Age of Sangam Literature (b) Bhakti (c) Ashtadhyayi of Panini (d) Charvakas (e) Ajivikas (f) Gndhara Art (g) Malechchhas (h) Lingayats (i) Megasthenes (j) R.C. Dutt (k) Nagrjunakonda (l) Pastoralism (m) Rudramadevi (n) Sati (o) Ramanuja
Ans. (a) Earliest Tamil works composed during Pandya’s 500 BC-500 AD, throw light on political history, store house on social and religious history.
(b) Originated in South 7th- 9th AD by Tamil mystic saints, pioneer Ramanuja, in north Ramananda, believed in monotheism, local dialect, devotional worship, criticize caste system.
(c) Flourished in 5th BC, grammatical work, divided into eight sectors, contain 4000 sutras, dealing mainly with bhasya.
(d) Founder of Lokyata Darsana, propounds gross materialism, sense preceprion is the only source of knowldege, no conscious entity like soul or mind.
(e) Heterodox sect founded by Maskariputra Gosala sect saints known as Sudra Sanyasi. Atheist sect believes in universe conditioned and determined by destiny, prevalent during Bindusara.
(f) Originated 1-4th A.D. fusion of Greek, Roman, Chinese Persian and Indian style of art. Themeon Mahayana Buddhism, Patron Kushan and shakya rulers.
(g) For foreigners term used in Sanskrit; texts consider as barbarian like a Greeks, Sakas Kambhoj.
(h) Founded by Basava and his nephew Channa Basava, noteworthy for its social and cult doctrine, believe in qualified monism, against Brahmin dominace and rites.
(i) Ambassador of Seleucus Nicator in Chandra Gupta Maurya, wrote Indica, throws light on social economic and religious life during Mauryas.
(j) Earliest Civil Srvant wrote Economic history of India, President of INC in 1890, In this book he ahs elaborated his thesis of Marx.
(k) Capital of Iksvakas in Andhra Prades famous for Buddhist Stupa and Chaitya, belongs to Amarvati art school, named after great Buddhist scholaR Nagrjuna.
(l) It is important economic aspect of tribal organistation, breed and rear cattle for commercial pur- poses. Todas in Nilgiri and Gujjars in Himachal Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir practice it.(m) Kakatiyas princess maintained intergrity of her empire, praised by Marco Polo, handed over power to Prataparudra II her grandson.(n) Social evil practised in ancient and medieval India especially among Kashtriya’s. First written evidence Eran inscription 510 AD. Banned in 1829 by William Bentinck.(o) His philosophy Vishista Advaitvada, Advocated Prapatti Marg, Saguna saint wrote Vedanta Sangraha popularly known as yatiraja, wrote commentary on Vedanta Sutra.
Q. 4. Answer any two of the following questions (in about 125 words each) :
(a) Explain how the Himalayan and the Tibetan highlands play an important role in the development of the South-West Monsoon ?
(b) Technological changes have brought in a major shift in the use of roads as transport corridors in India. How far do you agree with this view ?
(c) Explain the nature and causes of growing slums problems in the metropolitan cities of India.
Ans. (a) Himalayas from a natural boundary of the Indian Sub continent. Himalayas check the cold winds from Central Asia and prevents moisture laden winds from Central Asia and prevents moisture laden winds from crossing to North. As the Sun travels northwards there is change in wind circulation pattern both in lower and upper troposphere. At lower level due to the heating of land an Equational Low Pressure Zone is formed known as ITCZ (Inter Tropical Convergence Zone) which is formed approx parallel to the Himalayas. This zone determines the monsoon rain pattern in North India.Due to the heating of Himalayas and Tibetian Highland, Easterly jet stream orginates and generated tropical depression because Tibetian Highland and Himalayas are heated by Sun radiations. These radiations are reflected back to the atmosphere, which help in generation clockwise air circulation in the upper troposphere resulting in development of tropical depression. The intensity of South-West monsoon depends upon generation of these tropical depressions and formation ITCZs. The more tropical depression orginates, the more intense will be the South-West monsoon.(b) Transport system is a mirror of economic development and material prosperity of country. Several programmes have been implemented to develop roads as arteries of transport system like Nagpur Plan (1943), Twenty year Road Plane or Hyderabad Plan; Rural Development Plan; BOT, Centre Road Fund and Bharat Nirman. I fully agree with the above statement that technological changes have brought major shifts in the use of roads. This process has been evolutionary rather than revolutionary; new technology has been introduced in making all weather roads, width of roads increase for faster transportation, layering and concrete roads, better network of roads, increases in track capacity and weight, lower fuel consumptions. Proper management of corridors road, bridges and geotechniques involved in building tunnels and double road, use of innovative materials/Highway road safety norms have been made stringent and different methodology has been introduced like road facing, divider. Drainage of water; better elevation and right parameter of turns.(c) The rapid growth of slums in the metropolitan cities of India is due to various reasons like urban poverty, lack of remunerative employment opportunities, unequal regional development, lack of infrastructural development and rural employment, and lack of affordable legal shelter for the poor due to soaring land price in the urban areas.Development and opportunities for jobs attract a large number of migrants from rural areas. Increases in a greater proportion to the level of economic development slums swell, pressure on urban infrastructure intensifies and misery increases. It affects urban infrastructure like in Mumbai. Metti river was covered with slums; there was no drainage outlet left out resulting in flooding. Basic amenities, public utilities, transport and communication further deteriorate. It also enhances criminalization.Our planners’ lackadaisical attitude resulting in poor agricultural and rural industry in villages, lack of basic amenities like water, electricity medical and job opportunities are other causes. Even small town lack such opportunities to check migration.Economic development disparities will increase the exodus of rural people and mushrooming of more slums. Slums are also encouraged by politician to influence their clout.
Q. 5 Write notes on the following (in about 20 words each) 2x5 = 10
(a) Special Economic Zone (b) Inceptisol (c) Jarawas (d) Indira Point (e) Causes of Chambal Ravines
Ans. (a) Announced in 2000 by Ministry of Commerce to promote economic growth supported by quality infrastructure, fiscal package both at centre and state level.
(b) Soil usually moist, incomplete weathering, no clay, Iron and Aluminum oxide; saturated layers absent.
(c) Negrito tribes of Andaman; numerical thin strength, social contact futile due to their shy attitude, stay away from settling on Island.
(d) It is the farthest point of India located in Great Nicobar, also known as Pygmalion or Passon point; destroyed by Tsunami in 2006.
(e) Type of soil erosion gullies further deepen the grooves and result in ravines, barren land. It has resulted in poverty and unemployment and breeds crime like dacoity.
Q. 6 Answer any one of the following questions (in about 250 words).
(a) What is a Constitution? What are the main sources of the Indian Constitution?
(b) Difference between Directive Principles and Fundamental Rights. Discuss some of the measures taken by the Union and State Governments for the implementation of the Directive Principles of State policy.
Ans. (a) A Constitution is the supreme law of the land which reflects the fundamental principles on which the government of that country is based. It defines the organisation of the government, the distribution of powers to the various organs of the government, general principles on which those powers are exercised and the rights and duties of the citizens.
The main sources from which the Indian Constitution has been drawn are:
The most profound influence and material source is the Government of India Act 1935. The Federal Scheme, Judiciary, Governors’ Status, emergency powers, the Public Services Commission and most of the administrative details are drawn from this Act. More than half the provisions of our Constitution are drawn from it.
From the British our Constitution borrows the system of Parliamentary government, cabinet system, single citizenship, procedure and privileges of Parliament, prerogative writs.
The USA Constitution was the source for the provisions pertaining to Judicial review, Independence of Judiciary, Fundamental rights, removal of the Supreme Court and High Courts.
The Irish inspired the inclusion of the directive principles, method of election of the President and the nomination of members to Rajya Sabha. The Canadian Constitution is an example of Federation with a strong centre. The residuary powers of legislation are vested in the centre and the centre appoints the Governors from the Australia Constitution, concurrent list of legislative subjects and provisions regarding freedom of trade, commerce and intercourse, Weimer Constitution inspired to draw provision related to suspension of Fundamental rights during the proclamation of emergency.
Hence we can say our Constitution is conglomeration of the best features of the different Constitutions and modifies them according to our needs.
(b) Though the objectives of both FRs and DPs are identical there are still significant differences as follows.
FRs are justiciable, courts protect them and compel the state to respect them through Art. 32 and Art 226. But the Courts cannot direct the state to give effect to DPs as they are unjusticiable and cannot be enforced.
The FRs’ are mostly political rights which tend to restrain the state; they are legal in nature. They are also negative rights. Articles 14 and 21 are negatively worded. DPs are social rights in the form of positive obligations of the State and are morally binding upon the State.
There are numerous statutes both Central and State, which have their genesis in the desire of the government to implement DPs like Zamindar abolition Acts so that cultivator will become land owner. Agriculture Land Ceiling Acts were passed, several Amendments were made to implement DP principles i.e., the 73rd amendment to implement Panchayati Raj.
In 1969 nationalisation of banks, coalmines in 1973 inculcate Art 39 (b) and (c) legislation guaranteeing equal pay for equal work is relatable to Art 39 (d). The 26th Amendment of the Constitution made to abolish the Privy Purses which were granted to the rulers of Indian States. The 28th Amendment conferred on the Parliament the power to vary or revoke the conditions of service of the members of Indian Civil Service. Similarly ban on sale of liquor in Gujarat. All these were purported to implement the ideals enshrined in DPs.
Q. 7 Answer any one of the following (in 250 words) :
(a) What is regionalism? In which way has regionalism affected the Indian polity?
(b) What are the main determinants of voting behavior in India?
Ans. (a) Regionalism is the idea or practice of dividing a country into smaller units for political, economic, social and cultural purposes. Politically regionalism is linked to decentralization. It can also define as political ideology that focus on the interest of a particular region, or group of regions where people of particular faith or religion, or cultural affinity or linguistic affinity or caste or tribal affinity reside.
After independence because of various elements like regional development imbalance, non fulfillment of expectation of masses in terms of their aspirations with regard to development, river dispute or mineral rights, exploitation of people’s sentiments by political parties, exploitation of their culture or identity, linguistic hegemony are responsible for regionalism. Sometimes foreign powers also provoke regionalism to destabilize India’s growth and development.
Regionalism had manifold influence on Indian polity. In 1953 linguistic regionalism led to the formation of Andhra Pradesh Telgu speaking state. In southern States regional parties cropped up. Regionalism led to the recognition of regional languages as official languages of nation like Santhali, Konkani, It was regional feeling which was responsible for bifurcation of Punjab, Bombay, Assam. Sometimes regional imbalance in development initiates division like Uttar Pradesh into Uttarakhand, Madhya Pradesh into Chhattisgarh. Voices are raised to further divide UP into smaller States like Bundelkhand or Harit Pradesh.
Bodo Tribes in Assam and Gorkhas in West Bangal Demanded separate statehood due to regional inclination.
Regionalism has to some extent weakened the Centre Govt. and in framing its policies because it had to play appeasement policies. Country like India requires strong concrete policies to maintain integrity and unity of India.
Regional aspirations have been fulfilled over the period of time which no doubt has helped in maintaining unity amid diversity but in near future it can create new problems to india like rivers water dispute, distribution of electricity.
(b) Since Independence there are continuous changes in the voting behaviors in India. When India got independence, there was zeal for development and progressive growth. Congress was major party, opposition was highly fragmented. Then in South and East India Communist ideology emerged. Kerala and West Bengal Became strongholds of Communist voters. Another shift occurred due emergence of regional parties in the south India like DMK. Hence forth the voter became more inclined to regional ideology. From 1980 onward communalism, casteism, regional development slogan had drastically changed the voting pattern. In 1990 communalism and casteism further consolidated their roots and had deep impact upon voter behavior. Caste, religion, region, local cause and local charismatic leaders had deep impact upon voting behavior. National party influence decreased on voter behavior and national issues no longer influence voting behavior which it used to be 1950-70s. One thing which is noticeable is that the voter over the period of time has exerted his/her right and thrown out the governments for their incompetency.
Q. 8 Anser any two of the following questions (150 words) :
(a) Art. 74 States that president is bound to exercise his functions, in accordance with the advice of the council of ministers but there are few exceptions.
(b) What is Pro-tem Speaker?
(c) Under what circumstances may Parliament legislate on state subjects?
Ans. (a) The following are exceptions-
The appointment of the Prime Minister- While appointing /selecting the Prime Minister the President is to find out which party commands majority in the Lok Sabha. In case when there is no clear majority and various parties are combing to form coalition, then the President has to apply his mind in a judicious, fair and impartial manner.
· When the Prime Minster who has lost the confidence of the Lok Sabha, Council of Minsiters advises the President to dissolve the house, the President ahs to judge independently whether such a course of action would be in the national interest. The President should not bindly follow the advice tendered by the council of minister which does not enjoy the confidence of the lok sabha. If it is possible to form an alternative Government, the President should avoid dissolution.
· The president can ask council of minister to reconsider its advice this decision to be exercised independently by the President.
· The President can under Act 78 (b) call for information relating to administration and legislation.
· Under Act. 352 (3) the President has to ensure that during proclamation of Emergency decision of the cabinet must come in writing.
(b) After each general election the President nominates the senior most member elected as Speaker Protem. He performs the duties of office of the Speaker till the house elects one. Usually the only duty performed by the Speaker Pro-tem is to administer oath to the newly elected members. Pro-tem speaker is appointed both in Lok Sabha at the Union lelvel and Vidhan Sabha at the State level. In 2005 the Governor of Jharkhand appointed a junior member of the Assembly as Speaker. The Supreme Court expressed its disapproval.
(c) In normal times the distribution of powers must be strictly maintained and neither the state nor the centre can encroach upon the power allocated to be other by the Constitution yet there are certain exceptional circumstances under which the union Parliament can legislate on State Subjects.
1. According to Article 249 if the Rajya Sabha passes a resolution supported by 2/3 of the members present and voting that it is necessary or expedient in the national interest that Parliament should make laws with respect to any matter enumerated within state list, then it shall be lawful for the Parliament to make laws for the whole or any part of the territory of India with respect to that matter so long as the resolution remain in force. Such resolution lasts for one year, it may be renewed as many times as necessary but not exceeding a year at a time. These laws will however, cease to have effect on the expiration of the period of six months after resolution has ceased to operate.
2. During the Proclamation of Emergency, as per Art. 250 the Parliament shall have power to make laws for the whole or any part of the country with respect to all matters enumerated in the state list.
3. Parliament’s power to legislate with the consent of the States.
According to Art 52 if the state legislature of two or more states pass resolution to the effect that it is desirable to have a law passed by the Parliament on any matters in the state list, it shall be lawful for Parliament to make laws regulation that matter.
4. Parliament’s power to legislate for giving effect to treaties and international agreements.
Act. 253 empowers the Parliament to make any law for the whole or any part of the territory of India for implementing treaties and international agreements and conventions. The normal distribution of powers will not stand in the way of Parliament to pass a law for giving effect to an international obligation even though such law relates to any of the subjects in the state list.
5. In case of failure of constitutional machinery in a state.
Under Art. 356 Parliament is empowered to make laws with respect to all matters in the state list, when the Parliament declares that the government of the state cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution.
Q. 9 Answer the following questions (in about 20 words each :
(a) What is criminalization of politics?
(b) How is the President of India elected?
(c) What is casting vote?
(d) What is the difference between Council of Ministers and Cabinet?
(e) What is the importance of Right to Constitutional Remedies?
Ans. (a) Nexus between criminals and politicians has paid them rich dividend. Criminals help politicians in winning the election; now-a-day they themselves are contestiong and winning election by might and money.
(b) President of India is elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of Union Parliament and State Vidhan Sabhas.
(c) Art. 100 provides that the Speaker shall not vote in the first instance, but in case of equality of votes over a motion the speaker is entitled to cast his vote.
(d) Art. 74. (1) states that there shall be a Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Ministers there are different ranks like Cabinet Ministers there are different ranks like Cabinet Minister, independent charge, State and Deputy Minister. Hence council of minister is total number of ministers while cabinet is one of the ranks of it,
(e) Dr. Ambedkar rightly said ‘It is the very soul of the Constitution and the very heart of it. It provides right to move the Supreme Court by appropriate proceedings for the enforcement of the rights conferred by Part III of the Constitution.
Q. 10 Answer any one of the following questions (in about 250 words :
(a) What were the main recommendations of the Platform for Action (PFA) adopted at the Beijing Women Conference, 1995?
(b) Discuss the steps to get ride of child labour in India.
Ans. (a) The fourth World Conference on woman held in Beijing in September 1995 culminated with the adoption of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action. The Declaration secured the commitment of government to work towards implementing before the end of the 20th century the strategies agreed on in Naairobi in 1985 and to mobilize resources to achieve the goals set up by the platform.
It incorporates the accomplishments of Prior conferences and treaties such as the universal declaration of Human rights, Convention on the Elimination of all forms of discriminations against woman and the Vienna Declaration. It also reaffirms the definitions set up in Cairo and adds a paragraphs on Human rights in general
The Beijing Conference included agreements aimed at elimination discrimination against women, eradicating poverty and adopting measures towards placing a decisive number of women in key positions. It also recognized that the right of woman to control their security and reproduction is one of their human rights, and called on states to review laws containing punitive measures against women who have undergone abortions. It further posed the need to strengthen legislation protecting the rights of woman.
The summit focused on the following critical areas of concern :
· Inadequacies and inequalities in and unequal access to education and training.
· Inequalities and inadequacies in and unequal access to health care and related services.
· Violence against women.
· The effects of armed or other kinds of conflicts on woman including those living under foreign occupations.
· Inequality in economic structures and policies, in all forms of productive activities and in access to resources.
· Inequality between men and women in the sharing of power and decision making at all levels.
· Insufficient mechanism at all levels to promote advancement of woman.
· Lack of respect for and inadequate promotion and protection of the human rights of women.
· Stereo typing of women and inequality in women’s access to and participation in all communication system especially in the media.
· Gender inequalities in the management of natural resources and in the safeguarding of the environment.
· Persistent discrimination against, and violation of the rights of the girl child.
Hence, we can conclude that agenda at the summit was on gender, equity, equality and empowerment.
(b) Child labour- As India is marching from developing country status to developed country status, there are certain areas of concern like literacy, per capital income, social justice, child labour. Among them child labour is a critical issue. Child labour implies those who are in the age group below 14 years and who work for themselves or their family for an income and who contribute a significant share to the labour force of India.
Children come to work or parent send them to work due to Poverty and this is exploited by the employers. These employers do not even think that the health and growth of a child is being hampered as they employ them. Employers believe in cheap labour. The management of organized and on organized sector do not owe moral or social responsibility.
Apart from poverty illiteracy is also major factor, because parents of such children are not aware of the conquences of child labour to the child labour to the child, to their family and to the society at large.
Unplanned family is also one of the reasons for the parents to send their children to work. They believe in more hands, more income.
Our Constitution Art. 24 and Art. 39 clearly mention that government in all spirit intends to abolish child labour. The Supreme Court in M.C. Mehta Vs State of T.N. 1997 enshrines guidelines how the state authorities should protect economic social and humanitarian rights of million of children working illegally in public and private sectors.
In Aug. 1987 through Comprehensive National policy on child labour, through action plan National child labour projects were launched in 12 child labour endemic districts. Here govt. set up schools to provide non formal/ formal education, vocational training supplementary nutrition, monthly stipend and regular health check ups. This was done to prevent poor child from engaging in employment.
Government has also taken a number of steps against child labour like 12th June celebrated as world day against child labour. National child labour projects scheme provides.
· Special schools/Rehabilitation Centres
· Non formal/formal education
· Mid day meal (It should be strengthened and properly implemented)
· Stipend @ Rs. 100 per child per month also requires review.
· Health care facilities.
The NCLP scheme at present covers 250 districts of India.
The Law and regulations to prevent child labour should be made stringent and with sincere efforts, they should be implemented like child labour (Prohibition and Regulation ) Act. Legislations must be encated in such a way that not a single citizen of India should think of neglecting the provisions in the legislation.
Corporates houses and NGOs along with Govt. agencies should create awareness about the evils of child labour. The children should be made aware of their rights and privileges and when forced to work, the avenues to get rid of it.
Individual campaigning, group campaigning, family campaigning may be resorted to educate parents, children and the promoters of business houses.
Q.11 Amswer any two of the following questions (in about 125 words each) :
(a) What is stealth technology?
(b) Differentiate between National and Cultural heritage.
(c) What is value based politics?
Ans. (a) It is also known as low observability technology and is a sub discipline of electronic counter measures which cover a range of techniques used with aircraft, ships and missiles in order to make them lass visible to radar, infrared and other detection methods. Stealth technology is based on the principle of reflection and absorption that makes aircraft stealthy.
It is a combination of technologies that attempt to greatly reduce the distance at which a vehicle can be detected in particular radar cross section reduction but also acoustic, thermal and other aspects also. The term ‘Stealth’ in reference to reduced radar signature aircraft became popular during the late eighties when f-117 Stealth fighter became widely known. Most stealth aircrafts use matte paint and dark colours and operate only at night. Day light stealth US air force uses grey paints in disruptive schemes : B-2 bomber US aircraft uses chloro fluoro sulphonic acid for evasion. Stealth technology now-a-days is used both in aircrafts like F117 nighthawk, F-22 Raptor, B-2 Sprit Bomber and ship’s like La Fayette, Shivalik Hamina patrol boat.
Stealth technology allows an aircraft to be partially invisible to Rader or any other means of detection. Its does not make aircraft invisible on radar.
(b) The literary meaning of heritages is the history, tradition and qualities that a country or society has had for many years and that are considered an important part of its character.
Now-a-day both the above terms are associated with tourism promotion. The natural heritage mainly consists of physical and biological formations or group of such formation which are outstanding universal value from the aesthetic or scientific point of view like Mt. Everest, Angel fall Geological and physiographical formations and precisely delineated areas which constitute the habitat of threatened species of animals and plants like bio reserves; National parks. Natural sites or precisely delineated natural areas of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science, conservation or natural beauty like Himalays or Sunderban delta.
Cultural heritage on other hand includes monuments, architectural works, sculpture and painting elements of structures of an archaeological nature, inscriptions, cave dwellings and combination of features, which are outstanding universal values like Taj Mahal, Ajanta caves, group of buildings or seprate structure’s made by man known for their architectural and landscape features or unique e.g., Great wall of China, Indus, Egypt sites.
(c) Mahatma Gandhi cited the major structural and collective sins in contemporary period-politics without principles as sin. Hence we can sum up value based politics as based on certain basic principles or ideology which political parties are required to follow. Hence we can say values are equivalent to ideology. An ideology can be defined as a set of values beliefs and principles that guide a political party. All the policies and actions of that political party should be in conformity with these core values. In a democratic system, a political party must also have a share in decision making and hence it enters into electoral politics. But the dilemma that all parties face is, that they seek votes only from those believing in their ideology. As it is not possible because core supporters of any political party are always in limited number, it seeks to broaden its appeal, henceforth compromises and thus creates alliances. Here values are sometimes overlooked or forgotten in order to remain in power. Indian democracy was never in such a state of vaccum so far as the value orientation is concerned. It need value based politics much more than any time in its history. Pseudo values are adopted by political parties which can cause regional differences, caste and religious difference. Now-a-day in India personality based parties cam into existence, which function as private limited companies. Looming danger of free trade economy, environmental degradation, and terrorism require concrete value based politics to safeguard our country from vested interests.
Q.12 Write notes on any two of the following (in about 125 words each) :
(a) Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS)
(b) Prime Minister’s 5-point agenda for India’s development as a knowledge society
(c) The Lokpal Bill
Ans. (a) Integrated Child Development Services ICDS Government of India adopted National Policy for children in Aug. 1974, Under it ICDS was started in 1975 in 33 projects on experimental basis. It was a centrally sponsored scheme, adopting a multi sectoral approach to child development. The objective of ICDS are :
(i) Improving nutrition and health status of children
(ii) Laying foundation for proper psychological and social development of child.
(iii) Reducing mortality, morbidity and school drops outs.
(iv) Achieving effective coordination of policy and its implementation among various departments to promote holistic child development.
(v) Enhancing capability of mother to look after normal health and nutritional needs of child through proper health and nutritional education.
The Strategy adopted in ICDS in the delivery of integrated package of services namely : (i) Supplementary nutrition (ii) Immunization (iii) health check up and reformed services (iv) non formal pre-school education to children (3-6 age) (v) nutrition and health education to women.
Under this programme target group is children upto 6 years; pregnant and lactating mothers. ICDS focuses on rural and tribal areas and backward urban slusm.
(b) Prime Minister’s 5 point agenda for India’s development as a knowledge society.
· To generate cohesiveness among government organizations, industry and educated community to make effective law and their implementation.
· Use of world wide networking and telecommunication to make India knowledge based society.
· Expansion of educational sphere both in urban and rural areas and transform Indian society as enlightened and educated.
· Fuller use and implementation of information technology, telecommunication, science and technology, medical and health science and economic services.
· To generate an allied relationship among the power based technology, economic and information related issues so as to make India a developed nation.
(c) The Lokpal Bill- The Lokpal Bill has a long and chequred history. An agency like the Lokpal would help forces working for a cleaner government. The most recent bill introduced in Parliamnet is the Lok Sabha Bill 2001. It is synonymous to the institution of ombudsman existing in Sweden (Scandinavian countries)
· Its objective was to provide speedy, cheaper form of justice to people
· There member body with a chairperson who is or has been a Chief Justice of Supreme Court and other two members who are or have been judges or C.J. of High Courts.
· The Chairman and other two members shall be appointed by the President on the recommendation of committee consisting of (a) The Vice-President (b) Prime Minister (c) The Speaker (d) Home Minister (e) Leader of house other than the house in which P.M. is a member (f) Leader of the opposition of both the houses.
· In order to make Lokpal office independent following steps have been taken-
(i) Appointment is to be made on the recommendation of committee.
(ii) The Lokpal is ineligible to hold any office of profit under the Government of India or any state or similar such post after retirement.
(iii) Fixed tenure of three years and can be removed only on the ground of proven misbehavior or incapacity after an enquiry made by C.J. and two senior most Judges. Of S.C.
· Lokpal will have its own administrative machinery for conducting investigations.
· Salary of Lokpal is to be charged on the consolidated Fund of India
Jurisdiction of Lokpal
· The central level political functionaries like the council of ministers including the P.M. in relation to letters functions of national security and public order.
· Complaints of offence committed within 10 years from the date of complaint can be taken up for investigation.
Lokpal is supposed to complete the inquiry within a period of six months. The Lok-pal has the The power of civil court to summon any person or authority.
He annually submits its report to the President, which will be put before the both houses of Parliament.
Q. 13 Write short notes on the following (in about 20 words each):
(c) Fotloose Industries
(d) The Statue of Liberty
Ans. (a) Dance-drama of Karnataka, literally means songs of Yaksha, musician known as Himmela and dance group Mummela Product of Vaishnava Bhakti movement based on themes from Puranas, Mahabharata.
(b) it is an acronym of Processor for Aerodynamic Computations and evolutions for super computer developed by “D.R.D.O.s ANURAG”. It is eight gigaflops and target to make it 30 gigaflops.
(c) Industry that can be sited in any of a number of places, often because transport costs are unimportant, having spatially fixed costs which means that the cost of the products do not change despite, where the product is assembled e.g. Diamond and computer chips industries.
(d) Presented to the USA by France in 1886 copper patina clad statue, commemorates the centennial sculptured it. Gustave Effiel and Violet-le-Due were involved in its making.
(e) Coined by Hans Winkler, in 1920, Germany. Its whole hereditary information includes both the genes and the non coding sequences of the DNA.