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Question From XAT-2006-Reading Comprehension

Question From XAT-2006-Reading Comprehension

Question from XAT-2006-Reading Comprehension

DIRECTIONS: Questions 14-19 are based on the passage below.

Deliberative democracy demands a reflexive (or reflection driven) reordering of preferences in a non-coercive manner. The authenticity of democracy requires in addition that these reflective preferences, influence collective outcomes and action, and so long as the state is the main (though far from exclusive) locus of collective decisions, it requires discursive mechanisms for transmission of public opinion to the state. A deliberative or more properly a discursive democracy, in order that it can accommodate several competing versions of democracies such as the liberal, the minimal, me difference, etc., must also accommodate rhetoric, narratives, and empathy along with reasoning. A rationality and a reasoning that does not accommodate values is meaningless. However, it is also argued that' individual rationality cannot he realized if values are embedded in the decision procedures, in other words, realization of values could be made possible only when individuals behave non- rationally. Further if values having been abandoned at the individual level are accorded a place only collectively, the same must lead to either "epistemological inconsistency or abandonment of autonomy of individual evaluations". A talk or a rhetoric, otherwise, is strategic and is employed with the intention of signaling certain information. Such a talk can be therefore deceptive and coercive. The illocutionary force and the normative trappings of a Foucauldian discourse while allowing identification with a community and differences with the others, do simultaneously pose through coercion a threat to an utterance as such. If democracy cannot ensure utterance as freedom and if the illocutionary forces in a discursive democracy disciplines the thought and the talk, then how such a democracy could indeed be called authentic!

Most human actions and discourses are actuated by a deeper or primordial ante-deliberation Desire (let us use a capital 'D'). Speaking as such is out of such a Desire (one might use volition or passion). Engaging in a deliberation or else in an action is possible only since there has been such a Desire. Desire appears to both the reflection and also to an observer as a mental-state. A discourse can be set only when such mental states are in harmony, or share a common predisposition or attitude. In the absence of such shared mental-states, no discourse and no deliberation can begin. A running underlying and most often unstated theme that remains at the back of the idea of deliberative democracy is competition - a competition with the 'other' which introduces strategy. The alternative to competition, a mental-state which is out of a Desire to enjoy the 'other' in the light of a memorythat this 'one' and the 'other' were but the same and would again become the same, do not appear in the known Anglo-American literature. Such a mental-state might generate and keep alive possibilities of cooperation although is never a state of cooperation alone as such.

14. Which of the following follows from the passage above?
A. A rhetoric laden talk can generate authentic democratic collective choice
B. Irrational persons alone can have values
C. Authenticity of democracy requires a strong reflection-action interaction
D. A paradigm of competition alone can sustain an authentic democracy

15. Desire as ante-deliberation driving action refer to:
A. Irrationality of deliberation
B. Uselessness of deliberation
C. Desire to act without thinking
D. Temporal inconsistency in a position that argues for deliberative action constituting democracy

16. Which of the following is true from the passage?
A. Author argues that democracy is bound to fail
B. Author argues that Desire is primal
C. Author argues for an, end to primal desire so that an end to competition can come through
D. None of the above

17. A Foucauldian discourse as used in the passage does NOT refer to:
A. Discourse based on power
B. Community based discourse
C. Strategic discourse
D. None of the above

18. Which of the following words is. closest to the word 'primordial' as used in the passage above?
A. Elemental
B. Anarchist
C. Animalistic
D. Nihilistic

19. Which of the following captures the spirit of the position that the author hints at through the phrase 'alternative to competition'?
A. All the pragmatic world is-a stage -a play unfolding
B. Democracy is an unruly fight among citizens
C. Socialist planning does away with the chaos of competition
D. None of the above


Reading Comprehension - 2

DIRECTIONS: Questions 20-22 are based on the passage below.

In 1980, the US Supreme Court overturned decades of legal precedents that said that naturally occurring phenomenon, such as bacteria, could not be patented because they were discoveries rather than inventions. Yet that year, the Court decided that a biologist named Chakrabarty could patent a hybridized bacterium because 'his discovery was his handiwork, not that of nature'. A majority of the judges reiterated that 'a new mineral discovered in the earth or a new plant discovered in the wild is not patentable'. Yet they believed that Chakrabarty had concocted something new using his own ingenuity. Even Chakrabarty was surprised. He had simply cultured different strains of bacteria in the belief that they would exchange genetic material in a laboratory soup. The then embryonic industry used the case to argue that patents should be issued on gene, proteins and other materials of commercial value.

By 1980s, the US Patent Office had embarked on a far-reaching change of policy to propel the US industry forward, routinely issuing patents on products of nature including genes, fragments of genes and human proteins. In 1987. for example, Genetics Institute Inc. was awarded a patent on erythropoietin, a protein of 165 amino acids that stimulates the production of red blood cells. It did not claim to have invented the protein: it had extracted small amounts of the naturally occurring substance from thousands of gallons of urine. Erythropoietin is now a multi-billion dollar-a-year treatment.

The industry's argument is that innovation prospers only when it is rewarded. Without rewards, innovation will not take place. The barriers to entry into biotechnology are relatively low. Biotechnology companies do not have to build costly factories of high street retail outlets or invest in brand reputations. The basic units of production are bacteria manipulated to deliver therapeutically and commercially valuable substances. Without the protection of a patent, an innovative biotechnology company will find its discoveries quickly copied by later entrant. If the ownership of rights to exploit a genetic discovery were left unclear, there would be less innovation in the economy as a whole and we would all be worse off. The biotechnology industry in USA is larger than anywhere else, in part because innovators there have been allowed to patent their' inventions'. In 1998, there were almost 1500 patents claiming rights to exploit human gene sequences.

Yet the ownership regime for industries and products spawned by genetics is far from settled. A practical argument is about what should be owned - the gene or the treatment. The cystic fibrosis gene, for example, is patented, and anyone who makes or uses a diagnostic kit that uses knowledge of the gene sequence has to pay royalty to the patent holder. Many would argue that this is too broad a patent, which may be excessively strong and slow down innovation. As we move into the knowledge economy, issues such as the breadth and scope of a patent, the standards of novelty, even the duration; will become more problematical. To put in another way, who should own what and for how long will become more of an issue in a knowledge driven economy. That is because incentives to exploit knowledge need to be set against the value of sharing it. Scientific enquiry proceeds as a result of collaboration, the sharing and testing of ideas. We are lucky that James Watson and his collaborator Francis Creek did not work for Genentech or Glaxo-Wellcome because every genetic researcher would now be paying a royalty to use their discovery. Genetics, as most sciences, is built on a bedrock of shared knowledge. The more basic the knowledge, the more inappropriate strong property rights and exclusive private ownership becomes. Privatization ofknowledg- may make it less likely that know-how will be shared. Perkin Elme will publish its research on the, human genome, but only once in three months and the company will reserve at least 300 genes for its own patent programme. Publicly funded researchers share their results more openly and more frequently.

20. The erythropoietin episode shows that:
A. Patenting is the only way to encourage exploration of new ideas
B. Patenting accelerates exploitation of new ideas
C. Claims to patentability are often false
D. None of the above

21. After reading the passage, which of the following statements do you think captures best, the tenor of the piece?

A. The author is unequivocal about undesirability of a patenting system
B. The author .explores the complexities in patenting
C. The author deliberately obfuscates issues
D. The passage is boring about

22. Chakrabarty patent issue shows that:
A. Patent authorities are infallible
B. Patent systems are adhoc
C. Patenting rationale is socially embedded and evolutionary
D. None of the above


Reading Comprehension - 3

DIRECTIONS: Questions 23-29 are based on the passage below.

Enterprises in the throes of discovery have an aura of magic around them. In the world of software this becomes many-splendoured with a certain joie de yivre, quite distinct from what obtains elsewhere: a sense of wonderment, surprise and eventual delight; a coming within reach of power and profits; possibly through a little tweak in technology with a touch of novelty, opening up vistas that had always seemed so near yet so far. In professional management terms, this waving of the wizard's wand, as it were, is nothing more than an effective recovery of strategy from a technological paradigm. This book is about exploring the journey from rules and norms to solutions, specific solutions prized out of the anoured covers of sector-specific industrial structures and often resources-determined mindsets that Indian software' firms seems to have mastered. Originality is the fountainhead of such a strategy. It then progresses into the realms of the economics of innovation to give itself a solid foundation from where it becomes possible to retrieve a new language of strategy and of innovation. In this high- natural yet dynamic world, the profit motive, backed by ingenuity, lend support to many of the arguments that evolve in this flow of events. The Indian software experience is a unique demonstration of how this process - the coalescing of the economics of surprise and novelty and the economics of knowledge works. This forms the basics of the strategy theory.

There are several grand theories of even grander traditions: the industrial organization approach, including several kinds of structure-conduct performance assertions and game theoretic models, evolutionary theories and corresponding case' studies, resource-based approaches or several intermediate variants of competency based ideas that provide us with a rich yet incomplete landscape. This landscape is perhaps oblivious of certain traditions provided by theory; the rich repertoire bequeathed by Marshall and Shackle is a case in point, as they are immensely rewarding. Each important traditions or theory has made global assertions and has proved to be prescriptive or normative. Some authors have looked back at Marshall and a handful at Shackle. Fewer still reconsidered certain rich -traditions of thinking on strategy. This book does not attempt to issue prescriptive or normative guidelines purely because, the global canvass is too large and often beyond the capacity of intelligent comprehension. A strategist acts on a local scale following what Simon has generally observed. Pragmatism emerges as an important guide-and achieving the surprise element is above all. the key to definitive strategy. While this strategy evolves from governance, it also influences governance at every stage. Handicapped by a paucity of resources, the strategist must dovetail the two to increase immensely the scope of governance not only over what the incumbent possesses, but also over a much larger group of firms not under its direct control. This need not necessarily be explained by another grand theory, with globally prescriptive assertions or powers of predictions. Surprise must stand beyond predictability. 'It must govern to earn windfall profit. Strategy thus cannot be prescribed; it would comprise piecemeal engineering. This is what this book explains.

23. The locale of the phrase "acting on a local scale" as used in the passage above refers to:
A. Cognitively delimited space
B. Geographically delimited space
C. Temporally delimited space
D. None of the above

24. The idea of a 'magic' as used in the passage refers to:
A. Irrationality and blind belief
B. A sense of wonder at imagination unbridled by any governance whatsoever
C. A sense of wonder at the discovery of a grand theory
D. None of the above

25. According to the author, the several extant strands of strategy literature such as the Industrial Organization approach provide an incomplete landscape because:
A. They fail to take account of contributions of Marshall and Shackle
B. It is normative in nature
C. The vastly rich and unfolding reality is beyond the capacity of human comprehension
D. None of the above

26. Which of the following follows from the passage?
A. Indian software firms have excelled in providing specific solutions
B. Indian software firms have been remarkable technology innovators
C. Indian software firms have benefited from low priced manpower, with adequate programming skills
D. None of the above

27. From the passage which would be an adequate characterization of the author?
A. Positivist
B. Pragmatist
C. Empiricist
D. Cynical

28. From its usage in the passage which is the most appropriate meaning of the word 'wizard'?
A. Conman
B. A person of wisdom
C. A well known personality
D. None of the above

29. From its usage in the passage which is NOT the most appropriate meaning of the word 'ingenuity'?
A. Cunning
B. Creative
C. Original
D. Clever


Reading Comprehension - 4

DIRECTIONS: Questions 30-35 are based on the passage below.
Think back to 1993. That is when the Centre for Disease Control came up against the hantavirus in the South West. The virus made no sense. It had never appeared in landlocked regions before, and it was killing people by attacking their lungs rather than their kidneys, the virus's usual target. It seemed to defy explanation. And that's as close a parallel to a cosmology episode as I can describe. Basically a cosmology episode happens when people suddenly feel that the universe is no longer a rational, orderly system. What makes such an episode shattering is that people suffer from the event and, at the same time, lose the means 'to recover from it. In this sense, a cosmology episode is the opposite of a déjà vu experience. In moments of deja vu, everything suddenly feels familiar, recognizable. By contrast, in a cosmology episode, everything seems strange. A person feels like he has never been here before, has no idea of where he is, and has no idea who can help him. An inevitable stare of panic ensues, and the individual becomes more and more anxious until he finds it almost impossible to make sense of what is happening to him.

The continual merging and divesting and recombining and changing of responsibilities and bosses over the years has created immense cosmological episodes for business people. Even senior executives are unsure of whom they are working for and why. So I think it is fair to say that in the course of their careers, every manager will have a cosmology episode: their worlds will get turned upside down. Having the kind of alertness to weak signals that we see at High Response organizations can help managers avoid this particular psychological crisis. In the case of hantavirus, for example, the puzzle was eventually solved when epidemiologists discovered that recent climatic changes had produced an explosion in the rodent population that carried the virus, which increased the likelihood that humans might be exposed to hantavirus. In cosmological episodes, paying very close attention to details can definitely restore a sense of mastery.

What I have repeatedly noticed is that people who really get into trouble during these crisis are those who try to think everything through before taking action. The problem with defining and refining your hypothesis without testing them is that the world keeps changing, and your analysis gets further and further behind. So you have constantly got to update your thinking while you are sitting there and reflecting. And that is why I am such a proponent of what I call 'sensemaking'. There are many definitions of 'sensemaking; for me it is the transformation of raw experience into intelligible world views. It's a bit like what mapmakers do when they try to make sense of an unfamiliar place by putting it on paper. But the crucial point in cartography is that there is no one best map of a particular place. Similarly sense-making lends itself to multiple conflicting interpretations, all of which are plausible. If an organization finds itself unsure of where it's going, or even where its been, then it ought to be wide open to a lot of interpretations, al 1 of which can lead to possible action. The action and its consequence then begin to edit the list of interpretations down to a more manageable size.

And this is the point I wish to underscore. Action, tempered by reflection is the critical component in recovery from cosmology episodes. Once you start to act, you can flesh out your interpretations and rework them. It's the action itself that gets you moving. There is a beautiful, example of this. Several years ago a platoon of Hungarian soldiers got lost in the Alps. One of the soldiers found a map in his pocket and the troops used it to get out safely. Subsequently, however, the soldiers discovered that the map they used was in fact the drawing of another mountain range the Pyrennes. In crisis leaders have to act to think.

30. The hantavirus incident DOES NOT shows that:
A. Ignorance is pervasive
B. Uniqueness in its details can never be enumerated exhaustively
C. Pursuit of rationality is futile
D. None of the above

31. The nature of knowledge that most probably seems to be the ambit of the author in the above passage relates to which of the following?

A. Practical knowledge
B. Transcendental knowledge
C. Traditional knowledge
D. None of the above

32. Which of the following is necessarily true sad follows from the argument developed in the passage?
A. Action and conceptualization about reality is necessarily sequential
B. No concepts can be speculated about without action
C. Establishment of any concept cannot be done through discussions alone
D. None of the above

33. Sense-making as used in the passage refers to skills that primarily depend on:
A. The five human senses
B. Memory
C. Skills of cognition
D. None of the above

34. A deja vu is a feeling where everything seems familiar, in order. Behind it, however, is a tragedy for the appearance of order is illusory. Ignorance about the disorder as well as non-experiencing of it builds the illusion. Such a characterization of deja vu is — its use in the passage. (Choose the apt phrase to fill the gap)
A. Not inconsistent with
B. Inconsistent with
C. Necessarily follows from
D. Similar to

35. The use of episode in cosmological episode in the passage refers to:
A. Possibility of repetition of the experience
B. Disquieting nature of the experience
C. Accumulative nature of the experience
D. None of the above


QUESTIONS 36: Please choose the alternative that CANNOT go into the sentence in the blank space to make a coherent sentence:

36. The sale of the hotel chain under— resulted in extremely low yield for the promoter.
All the above

Questions 37-38: Please choose the correct alternative that can go into the sentence in the blank space to make a coherent sentence:

37. The — of the country should take a greater interest in promoting the indigenous works that are rooted in the deep traditions of scholarship across the world.

38. ——of different categories of problems often leads to design of improper solutions that fail to address the complexities of the problem.







19 Mar, 2019, 15:47:51 PM