When there are some physical, chemical or biological changes occur in our physical environment it is known as pollution and the substances which brings these changes are known as pollutants. The sources for the pollution can be natural or man made.
Following are the types of Environmental pollution.
1. Air pollution
2. Water pollution
3. Soil pollution
4. Noise pollution
5. Marine pollution
6. Thermal pollution
7. Nuclear pollution
Air pollution: When some foreign particles enters the air and deteriorate its quality is known as air pollution. These particles can be produced naturally or man made. Dust storms, Bacteria and gases of volcanic eruptions are examples of natural’s sources of pollutants. Gases released from the automobile and the chimneys are the example of man made pollutants.
Major Air pollutants: Carbon monoxide (CO), Ozone (O3), Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), Sulphur dioxide (SO2) and lead.
Water pollution: When some foreign particle, organic, inorganic or biological impurities are added to the water so that it becomes unfit for use is known as water pollution.
Major Water pollutants: Point Sources: Sewerage system and industrial effluents etc.
Diffused sources: agriculture. Mining and construction etc.
Soil pollution: When the productivity of the soil reduces due to the presence of pollutants in it is known as soil pollution. Man has polluted the soil by the excess use of pesticides.
Major soil pollutants: Pesticides, fungicides and herbicides
Noise pollution: An unwanted and unpleasant sound is known as Noise pollution. Noise pollution affects human being not the physical environment. It reduces the efficiency of the human being.
Major Sources: Industries, Transport vehicles, public address systems etc.
Marine pollution: Human being has polluted the oceans by adding the oil and waste disposal in it. The main causes of marine pollution are shore based industries, off-shore drilling, wrecked oil tankers and transport activities. Also the waste discharged into the rivers that flows to the ocean is the main reason of marine pollution. Marine pollution has adversely affected the sea life.
Major sources: Transport, oil tankers and industries.
Thermal pollution: It is an increase in the water temperature due to industrial operations (steel industries and power plants). Many industries are using water as a coolant. Due to which the temperature of the water rises. This hot water is then discharged into the environment causing a warming of surface water. This can result in a permanent increase in water temperature. It can also affect the aquatic system.
Major sources: Steel Industries, Power plants and nuclear power plants
Nuclear pollution: Pollution caused by the radioactive waste material due to nuclear explosion is known as nuclear pollution. It can give rise to diseases like skin cancer. Due to the increased numbers of nuclear plants the nuclear waste disposal has become a threat for the environment.
Major Sources: Natural: Cosmic rays
Man made: Nuclear weapons testing