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IAS Mains Previous Year Paper Philosophy (1991)

IAS Mains Previous Year Paper Philosophy (1991)

IAS Mains Previous Year Paper Philosophy (1991)

Paper-I- Philosophy-1991 (Mains)


1. Comment critically, in not more than 200 words each, on any three of the following statements:
(a) ‘Knowing is of two kinds - knowing how and knowing that’
(b) A relational way of thought— must give appearance, and not truth.’
(c) Sense - datum language is epistemologically more basic than material object language.
(d) ‘Man is not what he is, and is what he is not’.

2. What is radical empiricism of William James? How is it related to his pragmatism? Is it necessary for a radical empiricist to be a pragmatist? Discuss.

3. Elucidate the different phases of ordinary-language analysis, and bring out its merits and limitations.

4. How is necessity’ explained by
(a) a rationalist
(b) an empiricist, and
(c) a logical positivist? Which of these explanations is satisfactory according to you? Justify your answer.


5. Explain in not more than 200 words each, any three of the following along with criticism, if any:
(a) Alaukika pratyappa,
(b) Pratitya-samutpada.
(c) Svarupa jnana and vritti-jnana
(d) Asat-khyati.

6. Why does Carvaka accept perception alone as the pramana? How have Jam and Buddhist logicians refused his view? Evaluate both the perspectives critically.

7. Explain the conditions that are to be fulfilled for construing the meaning of a sentence and discuss the kind of recondary meaning.

8. How do Advaita Vedanta and Visistadvaita Vedanta explain the relation between Brahman and jiva? Analyze the ontological implications of their theories of this relationship.

Paper-II- Philosophy-1991 (Mains)


1. Give critical comments on any three of the following statements in not more than 200 words each:
(a) When socialism becomes nationalism, it ceases to be socialism
(b) The element of Coup d ‘etat is the indispensable element of revolution
(c) There is no role of Styagraha in Parliamentary democracy based on adult franchise
(d) A plural society is formed through a liberal constitution which builds some principle of tolerance and minority rights sin to its procedure

2. What is Social mobility? What changes has it brought about in the caste System of India?

3. ‘In a democracy socially and educationally backward classes are not identified by castes but by Poor living standards and by failures and dropouts in Schools’
Explain and examine the above view in reference to Indian democratic practices

4. Analyze the present predicament of Marxism and discuss whether it ‘will survive as a politically successful ideology or not.


5. Write critical comments on any three of the following in not more than 200 words each
(a) Union with God can never mean a unity of being but rather a complete conformity of the mystic’s will to the divine will.
(b) God uses sin and evil as a kind of foil by which be magnifies and enhances his own grace and glory.
(c) Will to be is the cause of life after death
(d) God appears before his devotee and answers his genuine prayer.

6. Critically explain the various theories of religious language giving your reasoned preference for one of them.

7. Discuss the role of Indian mysticism in bringing about national integrand democratization of spirituality.

8. Compare and contrast the theistic and atheistic paths leading to Moksha.



20 Jun, 2021, 12:58:24 PM