RAS MAIN-AGRICULTURE I- II
Agronomy (including statistics): Agro Climatology-Major agroclimatic
zones of India and Rajasthan. Cropping pattern in different agroclimatic
zones. Elements of crop production, Tillage and tilth, cropping
system including concepts of intercropping, multiple cropping, really
cropping, mixed cropping, sequential cropping, multistoried cropping and
their importance in relation to crop production, crop rotation.
minimizing water and wind erosion, Soil conservation practices and
structures. Weed management.
Soils, fertilizers and irrigations : Soils and soil management.
Different types of manures and fertilizers including bio fertilizers, soil
testing, essential major and minor plant nutrients. Soil-water-plant
relationship. Methods of irrigation. Present status and sources of
irrigation in the country and state of Rajasthan. Qualities of irrigation
water. Management of irrigation in major crops.
Field Crops : Study of cops with reference to origin, distribution in
Rajasthan and India, classification of important agricultural crops,
package of practices for important cereals i.e. Wheat, Barley, Bajra,
Sorghum, (Jowar), Maize, paddy, pulses i.e. Gram, Moth, Moong,
Cowpea, Oilseed Rape & Mustard, Groundnut, Til, Soyabeen, other
crops, such as Cotton, Sugarcane, Cluster bean, Cumin, Coriander,
Opium, Dry land agriculture concept, problem and extent of dry land
agriculture in India and Rajasthan.
Soil Science : Soil genesis, soil survey & classification; physical,
chemical and microbiological properties of soil; soil water; soil colloids;
problem soils, their reclamation and management; soil microbes and their
classification; soil organic matter, its formation and functions in soil, C/N
ratio; Organic manure their preparation, composition, chemistry of
decomposition and effects of soil properties. Fertilizer manufactureprocess
and chemistry, straight, compound and mixed fertilizers and their
effect on soil properties.
Agricultural Botany : Water relations, absorption and movement of
water in plants, photosynthesis; respiration; growth and development;
environmental factors affecting the growth.
Genetics : Importance and historical background of genetic;
inheritance of simple characters in plan, gene interactions and multiple
alleles, linkage and crossing over; DNA-structure & function.
Plant Breeding - Its significance. Methods of breeding in self, cross
& vegetatively propagated crops. Introduction, selection, hybridization,
mutation, Heterosis breeding & population improvement. Exploitation of
heterosis in Maize, Bajra & Sorghum. Improved seed types and their
production. Genetic engineering. Ultra structure of plant cell; structure &
function of cell organelles, classification of plant kingdom.
Horticulture : Olericulture - Types of vegetable farming;
classification of vegetable crops' layout of vegetable garden; package of
practices of important vegetables - Peas, Tomato, Cole Crops, Cucurbits,
Okra, Brinjal, Radish, Carrot, Pomology Selection of site and layout of
orchard. Methods of propagation, training and pruning of fruit plants;
package of practices of Citrus, Mango, Ber, Papaya, Guava,
Pomegranate; packing, storage and marketing. Floriculture and
ornamental gardening- layout, care & management of garden and indoor
plants. Fruit and vegetable technology. Principles of fruit and vegetable
preservation, dehydration, bottling and canning. Scope and importance of
Social Forestry & Agro forestry.
Plant Protection : Major diseases of Field, vegetable, orchard and
plantation crops and their control measures. Causes and classification of
plant diseases. Principles of Plant disease management with special
reference to biological and integrated approach.
Studies of insect, pests and their control measures including
integrated pest management of field crops, polyphagous pests and their
control. Pesticides - Doses and methods of application. Equipments -
Calibration, maintenance and their use. Aerial operations, insecticidal
residues and their hazards Legislative measures for plant protection and
quality control of pesticides Storage and post harvest technology. Lac
culture, apiculture, and sericulture.
Livestock Production : importance of livestock in Rajasthan and
India. Cattle, buffalo, goat, camel, sheep and poultry. Care and
management of farm animals. Selection of livestock for mild, meat, wool
and eggs. Methods of breeding. Animal nutrition-major and minor
nutrients, digestion and absorption; nutritive value of feeds and fodders;
feeding standards; balance ration Important fodder crops & grasses,
pasture management, hay and silage making. Health and hygiene.
Common infections, prevention and control of diseases care of sick
Dairying : Present position of dairy animals in Rajasthan and India
milk production and utilization, Collection, transportation, grading,
standardisation, pasteurization, homogenization, storage, distribution and
marketing of milk Common microorganism. sources and stage of
contamination and control. Milk products-manufacture of cream, butter,
ghee, cheese, ice-cream, dahi etc. Human nutrition-nutritional status,
assessment and problems; importance of nutrition education.
Extension Education : Principles, Philosophy, scope and
objectives. Rural and urban society; basic village institutions, social
institutions, rural leadership-type of leaders; rural family; cultural &
socio-economic changes, social control and social process. Early
extension work in India, Rural preconstruction programme in India
including community development programme, IADP, IAAP, HYVP,
SFDA, MFAL, Operational Research, TRYSEM, NAEP, DRDA, IRDP,
TDAP, Recent trends in agricultural extensions. Special incentives for
small marginal & other depressed classes of farming community.
Extension education as a process of teaching and learning;
extension teaching methods; A.V.aids; cone of experience, types of slides
& film strips; programme planning and evaluation; communications;
adoption and diffusion process, types of farmers in relation to adoption of
innovations. Training & management in extension education. Role of
Farm-women in agricultural extension. Agricultural information;
elements of effective teaching; T and V system.
Agricultural Economics : (including Farm Management) : Scope of
agricultural economics., differentiation between agricultural economics
and industrial economics. Peculiarities of Indian agriculture, population
theories. Problems of over population, Problems of land-Land use
pattern; land utilization in India and Rajasthan and variations among
states. Small and fragmented holdings, consolidation of holding;
legislations in agriculture; management of waste lands.
Agriculture labor : Present position and problems; minimum
wages. agricultural financing and rural banking - Meaning and
importance of finance in agriculture; capital and credit requirement;
commercial banks; social control on banks; bank nationalization; Rural
Regional bank; RBI, AFC, ADB, IMF, DIR. Lead Bank, Area approach,
village adoption scheme, NABARD. (A.R.D.C.); co-operative financing -
PACS, CCB, LDB, poverty and rural indebtedness.
Farm Management : Essentials in selecting a farm; various systems
of farming; basic economic principles in farm management., farm records
and accounts. Farm efficiency measures. Farm planning and budgeting.
Problems of management in agriculture. Risk and uncertainty in a
agriculture. Droughts and floods, insurance of crops & animals.
Agricultural Engineering : Study of common workshop tools of
carpentry, blaksmithy and fitting shops, Study of different instruments
and equipments used in land surveying. Sources of farm power on an
average farm. Scope of farm mechanisation in India. Maintenance of
agricultural machinery and implements, I.C. engines, water fitting
devices, electric motors. Wind and solar energy as a source of farm
Soil and water conservation engineering, water harvesting, storage
and recycling, watershed management. Sources of irrigation water. Water
measuring devices. Lining of water channel. Irrigation layout.
Implements used for seed-bed preparation, sowing and fertilizer
application, interculture and land leveling etc. Harvesting and threshing
equipments-manual, animal and-power operated. Storage structures.